The Evolution of Religiosity

 

and Human Coalitional Psychology

Legend of the Nile (1937) by Paul Klee

Dr. Paul J. Watson

Evolutionary Behavioral Ecology & Evolutionary Psychology

University of New Mexico

Department of Biology, 110 Castetter Hall

pwatson@unm.edu

Fall Semester 2016

3-credit hours

 

This course is cross-listed so that both students physically sitting in the classroom (sections -009), and "synchronous online" students logging in to our scheduled meetings remotely using ZOOM technology (sections -080), may enroll for credit under any of three academic programs, namely, Biology, Religious Studies, and Peace Studies:

Biology 419/519

(CRN# 45302 [in classroom] or 57189 [via ZOOM]) and

45303 or 57190 ZOOM, respectively)

or

Religious Studies 447

(CRN# 57689 or 38926 ZOOM)

or

Peace Studies 340

(CRN# 57690 or 49366 ZOOM)

Call me with any enrollment questions at 505-681-3391 for immediate professorial attention!

Note: The 447 seminar status of this course in the Religious Studies Program allows it to count toward fulfilling the "advanced seminar requirement" for a RS major or minor.

 

Be sure to contact me via email if you have difficulty registering.

Achtung! If you are a ZOOM student, you are expected to tune in from your remote location during the real-time class, (this is a so-called "synchronous online" class; see the online UNM web link below) so you can interact with the instructor and fellow students to help create "group genius" and to promote your own absorption of the material. Also, ZOOM students, be sure to look for instructional emails from the UNM extended learning center prior to the first day of class, so that you'll know exactly how to log in successfully by 1:00 PM MST on the very first Monday of class. I expect all students to be punctual -- occupying their real or virtual seats by 1:00 PM. Actually, all students will be using the web site provided to the class by the UNM Learn extended leraning center, so EVERYONE please become familiar with it. Check out the UNM Online Learning site.

Meeting Times: Mondays and Fridays 1:00-2:30 PM.

Classroom: Room: 134, Dane Smith Hall.

Office hours: Office hours bolster your grade, and are highly encouraged for everyone, but especially if you find it difficult to speak in class. Face to face office hours, or other forms of 1-to-1 or small group contact with the instructor for ZOOM students will be readily available. They allow me to customize explanations of certain slippery, nuanced concepts for your individual psyche. Face-to-face office hours will be available MF 10:00 AM till 12:30 PM, or by special appointment. For online students, "office hours" will be offered Wednesday 10:00 AM till 1:00 PM, or by appointment, soon using Zoom-based conferencing technology on UNM Learn website, and NOW by telephone.

To get a better sense of the course, keep reading. Also, you'll find a recently updated (for 2016) downloadable SYLLABUS below. But go to the UNM Learn web site for the most up-to-date course "mechanics" info; it supercedes everything on this web site, which is hard for me to update. Adaptive changes will be made to this syllabus in terms of the rate and orders with which subjects are covered. I never teach the course the exactly the same way twice - it depends on the needs and spirit of the class: student curosities and concerns as expressed in writing assignments and discussions, my shifting instincts and priorities about where to go next, and what hot new literature appears. We eventually cover everything possible about the evolutionary origins and potential adaptive significance of religiosity, especially in relation to human coalitional psychology (i.e., the adaptive design of the human psyche enabling astute management of specific relationships and the effective*efficient navigation of whole social networks.

Our textbook for 2016 will again be Matt Rosanno's "Supernatural Selection." Get it from Amazon. A Kindle version is available as well as some used hardcovers. Do yourself a favor and get it soon. Read it over the summer, perhaps. It has its limitations, is a few years old, and the course will provide a much broader view of religiosity than does this book. But, "Supernatural Selection" is still the only attempt at constructing a multifaceted, integrated adaptationist account of religion that exists, and it is very readable for a broad audience. Some of its major tenents are in basic agreement with my own views of the role of religion in social life in that Rosanno emphasizes that religion is fundamentally involved in establishing and maintaining relationships.


Summary

This course offers a comprehensive, nuanced, scientific materialist, Darwinian analysis of all aspects and varieties of religious behavior and inner experience.

The course is for mature "on-site" and "virtually on-site," synchronous online ZOOM students, who are dedicated to the pursuit of fundamental self-knowledge. I expect maximal real time attendance, from both in-class and online studets, and that everyone will do their best, with some instructor faciliation, to actively participate in thoughtful, principled, analytical discussion, paper presentations, and writing. The course is designed to bring about an in-depth understanding of the evolutionary biology of "religiosity," the package of instincts and cognitive designs that lead humans, pan-culturally, to create all sorts of religions and, how these instincts and resulting religions relate adaptively to fundamental aspects of human social life.

It is important that you understand the following. Our course is not about untestable propositions concerning the existence of supernatural entities; these will not be discussed. Nor is it about whether religion is morally good, bad, or neutral. Rest assured, there is no evangelical atheist agenda. Careful questions about variation in religion's adaptive significance in diverse traditional versus modern social and ecological contexts are fair game. Nor is this course about the cultural relationships between religion and science. We are not going to debate, for example, whether or not they are non-overlapping magisteria (sensu S.J. Gould). This course IS all about the deep biology of religion. We will also use the study of our innate religiosity as a portal for understanding the design of the human psyche more broadly.

The course covers recent papers on the evolutionary psychology and evolutionary cognitive neuroscience of religiosity, as well as a variety of state-of-art testable hypotheses about the origins and adaptive significance of human religiosity. Religion, religiosity instincts, and certain more general underlying evolved design features of the human psyche are examined in a non-judgmental way that, just like, for example, a course on spider biology would cover the origins and adaptive significance of spider webs and the different types of spider silks, or a course on mammalian carnivores would cover the adaptive design of fangs and carnassial (meat-shearing) teeth. The course will elucidate, for ALL serious students, the evolutionary origins, maintenance, and probable adaptive (i.e., fitness-enhancing) elaborations of religiosity by natural selection during the vastness of human evolutionary history. Thus we will discuss multiple explanations of how religions, and the enabling religiosity instincts, which drive us almost inexorably to create them, potentially are highly functional evolutionary adaptations - products of direct natural selection, and not just "cognitive by-products" or other sorts of maladaptive or non-sensical "cognitive-emotional junk."

Don't let any of the fancy terms above scare you off. I've am dedicated to offering all this material to a broad audience with diverse backgrounds. So, pertinent modern Darwinian theory will be thoroughly explained and you will learn how to critically apply it to human behavior throughout the course. You just have to help me out when a concept does not yet make sense to you by asking questions.

Many students who first approach this course with deep skepticism concerning what the natural sciences can say about religiosity end up being highly impressed by previously unimaginable, cogent, testable explanations of human religious belief, feeling, and behavior now available from the field of evolutionary behavioral biology. Aspects of evolutionary cognitive neuroscience will be discussed to explain how and why natural selection designs human minds instinctively receptive to religious cultural influences.

Expect a strictly non-ideological, biology-oriented course that will help diverse students think in incisive and very new ways about religion and, more broadly, the astoundingly sophisticated, and socially and ecologically responsive, workings of the human mind. Your mind. The course is appropriate for mature undergraduates and graduates majors or minors in Biology, Anthropology, Psychology, Religious Studies, and Philosophy. The course is designed to help anyone with a serious curiosity about the human condition, scientific and introspective "seekers of truth," to take advantage of the extremely powerful objectifying influence available from the intellectually coherent, evidence-based modern Darwinian theory of mind and nature. Background in key basic and mid-level theories of evolutionary behavioral ecology and evolutionary psychology will be provided as needed, in course context; this should be beneficial to students with and without biological backgrounds.

Relatively mainstream as well as newer unpublished perspectives on the biological evolution of cross-cultural religious predilections will be explored. A full range of scientific perspectives will be considered. Cognitive by-product (epiphenomenalist), memetic, and functionalist (adaptationist) evolutionary hypotheses covering pancultural manifestations of religiosity will be thoroughly discussed and integrated. By the end of the course it will be clear to the student how religious and proto-religious thinking could have gotten started in our hominid ancestors. Further, it will be shown how natural selection could have taken hold of various instincts and cognitive-emotional adaptations, mostly relevant to navigating the complexities of human social life, tuning and dovetailing them to increase their social and ecological utility and their tenacious intrapsychic grip upon us.

Humans have evolved a "super-social" way of life that I refer to as complex contractual reciprocity. A major emphasis of this course will be elucidating what this way of life entails, and how religiosity could have been selected for, genetically and culturally, to support individual and cultural success in dealing with CCR's incredible opportunities and demands. For some recent writings that help portray the human social context in which I feel the evolution of religiosity must be understood, see (1) "Ties That Bind" pieces from page 449 and 497 of the 1/26/12 issue of Nature and (2) the "Adapted to Culture" piece from page 297 of the 2/16/12 Nature issue.

Another recent paper that would make for great summer reading to help prepare you for modern sociobiological emphasis of the class is by Pat Barclay, "Strategies for cooperation in biological markets, especially for humans." This is from the top evolutionary psychology journal, "Evolution and Human Behavior" (May 2013, v34 (3), pp.164-175).

An impressive array of human cognitive traits were selected for in the context of contractual reciprocity and other aspects of human ecology, which contribute to cross-cultural religious drives and experiences. These cognitive traits (1) guide our extraordinarily flexible subjective perceptions of reality, (2) modulate the dynamics of our life-sustaining coalitions, (3) underpin the formation and communication of credible (hard-to-fake) social commitments and personal needs, (4) control our moral deliberations and reasoning about relationships, and (4) are pivotal in canalizing systems of rules governing social exchange contracts. We shall also consider religiosity's possible adaptive significance for the generation of willpower, enhanced intelligence, and improved health.

"Evolution of Religiosity" is a biology course, so we'll not be spending class time on evangelical atheist or anti-religious material. Religiosity is taken as a biological feature of the mind, or at least a deeply ingrained biological potential of it, analogous to language and other cultural learning. The course is about understanding the evolutionary origins as well as the functions of religiosity. We are not about judging it - no more so than a course on, say, bees and wasps would judge them for their venom-injecting stingers used in hunting and defense, or a course on spiders would morally critique their use of silken webs to capture prey. Our group's mandate will be to help each other honestly pursue self-knowledge and fresh, cogent, scientifically informed views of religion's evolved place in human mental and social life, in all its contradiction-laden beauty and horror. Come gain experience using the "ultimate" evolutionary level of analysis to understand the inner and outer world you live in and to see more deeply into the covert yet functional relationship between your conscious and unconscious mind, with special emphasis on the natural phenomenon of religion.

To help you get a more concrete notion of course content, here is an essay appearing on Nature.com, "Is Rationality the Enemy of Religion?," reflecting upon a recent paper in Science, "Analytical Thinking Promotes Religious Disbelief." The Nature.com link has comments by readers below it; scroll down and you'll see a comment by your's truly dated 5 may 2012. You can see another essay and longer comment stream on this same paper at the Scientific American website, entitled, "Losing Your Religion"," where my comments are numbers 92 and 93. If these kinds of things interest you, you might like this course.

Here is another discussion, on the Nature web site, that is in line with the spirit of the course. I do not think "group selection" processes produce genetic evolution, but fierce cultural group selection does occur, and religious groups have tended to win out in worldwide cultural competitions. Culture is recognized in modern Darwinism as an aspect of the human evolutionary environment, so it naturally effects genetic evolution. I bring up these added points to alert students to the fact that all manner of cultural considerations are perfectly subject to modern biological analysis, as will be evident in this course.

The course will prepare students to see the relevance of many findings in cognitive neuroscience for the understanding of the role of religion in human social life. For example, take this recent essay in the NYT, "When Truisms Are True." In the context of the course, we would talk about implications of such research findings for the effectiveness of repeated religious ritual, entailing stereotypical movements and speech/song, for cryptically constraining the creativity of participants in thinking outside a (beautifully decorated) box about morals, norms, and values of their group. In contrast, other religious practices may enhance individual creativity, perhaps in more tactical domains of life.

As another example, the course will offer a novel full fledged ultimate (not just proximate) explanation of placebo effects offered in religious (and other) contexts, effects that may have health effects today and may have been of great importance in our evolutionary past. We will go beyond the standard proximate explanation that religious participation reduces stress and so increases health via favorable immune system effects. WHY (!), and in what context, does religious behavior reduce stress? Why does intercessory prayer for the ill sometimes make them worse? These things cannot be understood without analyzing religiosity instincts of humans in the broader context of human coalitionary psychology.

What do you think about "spiritual practice" outside the context of involvement in an organized religion? We'll discuss many such questions, and there always will be a scientifically meaningful theoretical basis for developing relatively objective and testable perspectives. This will be a course in which your questions about religion and your own mental / emotional life can be addressed, so please be prepared to participate.

Yes, this course is offered, in unprecedented fashion, for Biology, Religious Studies, or Peace Studies credits (3-credits). For the first year, it is also available as a distance-learning ZOOM course. Lectures, readings, and associated discussions will cover a very wide sampling of empirical and theoretical literature.

I emphasize questioning. Student-to-professor and sincere respectful student-to-student questions and challenges will be encouraged throughout. Such interchanges will reflect the fact that this is a science course, which necessitates the cooperative sharing of alternative reasoned viewpoints, all offered in a comradely spirit of devising tests of opposing propositions about religion as a natural phenomenon. The content of our discussions, partly, will derive from student “point lists,” electronically handed in by every student at the beginning of each week (i.e., Monday, before class); these will be graded, and cumulatively account for a sizeable portion (about 35%) of each student’s final grade. I will help choose the most stimulating and burning points to raise from these writings, asking their authors to verbally state and expand on them, and calling on the class to discuss them. See the downloadable 2016 syllabus, below, currently in the process of being revised, for more information on course format, requirements, goals and philosophy.

The evolutionary focus of the course is not designed to dissuade students of their religious views. Indirectly, it will cause any thinking student to ponder the source of their views. It will also cause any participating student to question innate and learned assumptions about how their minds operate, “who they really are.” In many ways this is a course about the cryptic relationship between the conscious and unconscious mind, the shifting dreamworlds it causes us all to live in, and the possibilities of escape, which biological knowledge improves.The Golden Fish, Paul Klee, 1925.

Again, I emphasize that the course will provide rigorously materialist, biologically reasoned analyses of multicultural aspects of religiosity. Many competing and complimentary points of view concerning religion as a natural phenomenon will be explored, I hope vividly. All of our work together will be informed by modern evolutionary psychological theory and applicable discoveries about human mental organization from the evolutionary cognitive neurosciences. The course will open potentially disquieting questions for students with religious and non-religious world views and "self-models." Expect penetrating questions to be opened and illuminated about the reasons for and sources of our beliefs, behaviors, and our dearest most sacred inner experiences.

Class time will not be taken debating belief or faith-based supernatural views of reality, such as whether or not "spirits" and kindred entities actually exist; untestable claims do not logically compete with scientific perspectives. However, the class will be a safe place to share and analyze actual experiences regarding religious thought patterns and emotions. I know I've had some. You can be a materialist, and a Darwinian, and still recognize, perhaps all the better, that there is an extraordinarily worthy life-project, available uniquely to humans, entailing the pursuit of unromanticized objective self-knowledge.

"Man's possibilities are very great. You cannot even conceive a shadow of what man is capable of attaining..."  G.I. Gurdjieff

COURSE ORGANIZATION: After a couple introductory weeks of interactive lecture, we will spend our Monday meetings in roundtable discussions based (1) on our various readings and (2) questions that arise for students related to lecture material. I will call on students to comment on chapters based on "point lists" they have written during their readings, and which will be handed in before each Monday meeting via email attachment. Our Friday meetings will be centered on lectures and discussion led by myself, but during which students will be invited to chime in, question, challenge, etc. In the end, you will get (1) a diversity of views on the evolution of religiosity from Bulbulia, (2) a relatively integrated and ultimately adapationist single-author explanation from Rossano and or Sanderson, and (3) my personal views on the evolution of religiosity, developed over the past 25 years.

The course requires a good deal of thoughtful writing, on the basis of which I try to provide extensive "personalized" oral and, as student time and effort warrant, written feedback to students. Besides the weekly point lists mentioned above, there is a required term paper (see syllabus). No late work will be accepted except due to illness or emergency.

There is also a very thoughtful chapter on religion, which we'll certainly be reading and discussing early in the course, presented in the recent book, "Human Social Evolution: The Foundational Works of Richard D. Alexander" (2013). Alexander freshly wrote this chapter specifically for this volume. I'll provide a PDF to the class. An excellent complimentary paper recently out in the journal "Human Behavior and Evolution," Crespi and Summers (2014), Inclusive fitnesss theory for the evolution of religion, will also be a great addition to our course reading and discussion. Besides beginning Rossano, these will probably be our first two class readings (comment added 6-30-14).

As time allows, we also will read selections from other recent books authored by evolutionary psychologists with various perspectives, such as "The Supernatural and Natural Selection: The Evolution of Religion" (2008), by Lyle B. Steadman and Craig T. Palmer, "The Biological Evolution of Religious Mind and Behavior" (2009), edited by Eckart Voland and Wulf Schiefenhövel, and "The Evolution of Religion: Studies, Theories, & Critiques".

For those who would like more examples of course content, a previous text for the course is still valuable: "In Gods We Trust: The Evolutionary Landscape of Religion" (2002), by cognitive anthropologist, Scott Atran, from the "Evolution and Cognition Series" of Oxford University Press; also here is a downloadable condensation Atran's views (in PDF format), published in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (Atran and Norenzayan, 2004). There may also be some chapter readings from from "The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology" (2005), edited by David Buss (see below).

My colleague Andy Thomson M.D. recently published a succinct book on the evolution of religion entitled, "Why We Believe in God(s)." The book provides a highly accessible introduction primarily to non-adaptationist evolutionary accounts of religion. The course goes well beyond what Thomson covers, but the book provides a quick introduction mainly to anti-functionalist scientific perspectives on religion. Why not read it today?

Robert Trivers is a leading evolutionary theoretician who, among other key contributions, provided the first thorough Darwinian portrayal of the unconscious mind, which offers a monumental advance over the bold but misguided analyses provided by Freud. Trivers has a new book out on deception and self-deception. An understanding of why natural selection has designed minds to construct subjective models of reality is crucial for understanding religion. Triver's book is written for a general audience and would be an excellent preparation for this course. Here are some reviews of the book from (1) the New York Times, (2) the journal Nature, and (3) the journal Evolutionary Psychology.


Download the 2016 Syllabus, v.23 August 2016, in PDF format.


Here are additional PDF's of some likely readings from outside the main text.

Please try to read these three items before our first class meeting:
(1) Boyer, Pascal. 2003. Religious thought and behaviour as by-products of brain function. TRENDS in Cognitive Science 7 (3) 119-124.

(2) Animal Behavior - From Encyclopedia Britannica Online, authored by two top Cornell University behavioral ecologists, Tom Seeley and Paul W. Sherman; very helpful background for the course and an excellent read! (html version).

(3) Opening pages from one of our 50-Chapter source of presentation papers, which you do not need to purchase, Bulbulia et al., 2008: "Note from the Publisher," "Preface:Bringing the Evolution of Religion into Being," and "Introduction: Religion in Eden."

Probable readings from the Buss Handbook include:
The Buss Handbook Foreward, Introduction and Afterword.
Chapter 26: The evolution of morality, by Dennis Krebs (pp. 747-768; pp 22).
Chapter 5: Controversial issues in evolutionary psychology, by Edward Hagen (pp. 145-171; 27 pp).
Chapter 1: Conceptual foundations of evolutionary psychology, by John Tooby and Leda Cosmides (pp. 5-63; 59 pp).
Chapter 3: Domain specificity and intuitive ontology, by Pascal Boyer and Clark Barrett (pp. 96-113; 18 pp).


Page updated 31 August 2016.