Body mass of late Quaternary mammals

 

Felisa A. Smith[1], S. Kathleen Lyons, S.K. Morgan Ernest, Kate E. Jones, Dawn M. Kaufman, Tamar Dayan, Pablo A. Marquet, James H. Brown, and John P. Haskell

 

National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS)

Working Group on Body Size in Ecology and Paleoecology

735 State Street, Suite 300

Santa Barbara, CA   93101-5504

www.nceas.ucsb.edu

 

Introduction

 

Body mass is the most obvious, and arguably, the most fundamental characteristic of an organism, impacting many important attributes of life history, ecology and evolution.  The range and mode of body mass for a taxonomic group reflects underlying allometeric, phylogenetic and ecological constraints.  Yet, how these factors and selective forces interact to determine the characteristic body sizes seen in animals is unclear and remains a major area of study in biology.

 

This paper documents the development of a body mass dataset created as part of a National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) working group.  Our purpose in compiling these data was to explore the body mass similarities and differences of mammals across the taxonomic hierarchy, broad geographic space, and evolutionary time.  We have used these data to compare, for example, the body mass distributions of terminal Pleistocene mammals on each continent prior to the arrival of man.  Our analyses suggest they were remarkably similar and that anthropogenic hunting activities, not climate change, resulted in the differences seen today (Lyons et al., in revision). In other work, we have investigated the heritability of body mass across the taxonomic hierarchy and across space and time.  We found a very high correlation of body mass among congeners, except for the very smallest size classes.  For those species under about 10g, body mass of sister species tends to be very diverse (Smith et al, in revision).  Moreover, the body mass patterns seen across the taxonomic hierarchy are also recapitulated across geographic space and evolutionary time.  The broad spectrum of body mass seen today was established early in the Cenozoic and has been maintained despite enormous taxonomic turnover.

 

Our dataset consists of the updated version of Wilson and Reeder’s (1993) taxonomic list of all known mammals of the world (N=4629 species) to which we added status, distribution, and body mass estimates compiled from the literature.  Mammals occurring on more than one continent have multiple records; continent-specific masses were used when available. Moreover, for four of the continents (Africa, North and South America and Australia), we included the mammalian species that went extinct at the late Pleistocene (an additional 230 species).  Overall, we have 5731 rows of data.  We defined “late Pleistocene” as approximately 11 ka for Africa, North and South America, and at 50 ka for Australia, because these times predate anthropogenic impacts on mammalian fauna (e.g., Klein 1984; Martin 1984; Kurten 1988; Lessa and Farina 1996; Flannery and Roberts 1999; Martin and Steadman 1999 and Stuart 1999). About half the records in our dataset are derived from previous compilations (Silva and Downing 1995; Marquet and Cofre 1999; Jones et al. 2003); the remainder are largely drawn directly from the primary literature.     

 

The dataset is fairly comprehensive for oceanic mammals, and for those occurring on four of the continents (Africa, Australia, South America, and North America), but is less complete for Eurasian and insular species (Table 1). We have been able to obtain mass estimates for 4361 of the 5731 rows of data; 1372 are missing values. Most, if not all missing species are poorly studied and tend to be rare, cryptic or both.  Body mass was estimated using an algorithm that prioritized in the following order:  1)  A gender-specific estimate obtained by averaging values reported from across geographic localities, these were then averaged to obtain an overall species value, 2) When no geographic information was provided, gender-specific values were averaged for an overall species body mass estimate, 3) If both male and female masses were not available, male mass was used preferentially, averaging over geographic localities if such information was available, 4) If only female body mass was available, it was used, again averaging over geographic localities as available. In no instance did we use generic means as a proxy for a species average.  Body mass estimates for extinct species were gathered from the primary literature, from personal communications, estimated from regressions of teeth measurements (e.g., Damuth and MacFadden 1990), or obtained from web databases.  The source for each datum is listed in the reference column of the dataset.  All extant mammalian orders are represented, and we include several archaic groups present in the late Pleistocene.  By compiling such data from geographically and historically isolated areas, we were able to compare similarities and differences in mammal body mass across continents differing in species composition, current and past environments and geographic history.  Moreover, we were able to examine the impact of early humans on patterns of mammalian diversity across disparate regions.

 

Because our studies have focused on broad macroecological patterns, we have ignored the often substantial geographic body mass variation that may exist for a species.  Estimates contained within this dataset thus represent a generalized species value, averaged across gender and geographic space.  Consequently, care should be taken if these values are used to represent species at a particular locality and/or time.

 

Metadata

 

Class I. Data Set Descriptors

A. Data set identity:

            Title: Macroecological Database of Mammalian Body Mass

B. Data set identification code

            Suggested Data Set Identity Code: MOM v3.3

C. Data set description

            Principal Investigators:

Felisa A. Smith, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 87131

 

S. Kathleen Lyons, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 87131

 

S.K. Morgan Ernest, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 87131

 

Kate E. Jones, Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904

 

Dawn M. Kaufman, Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506

 

Tamar Dayan, Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978 Israel

 

Pablo A. Marquet, Centro de Estudios Avanzados en ecologia y biodiversidad, Departmento de Ecologia, P. Universidad Catolica de Chile, Alameda, 340 C.P. 6513677, Casilla 114-D, Santiago, Chile.

 

John P. Haskell, Department of Forest, Range, and Wildlife Science, College of Natural Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT, 84321

 

Abstract:

The purpose of this dataset was to compile body mass information for all mammals on Earth so that we could investigate the patterns of body mass seen across geographic and taxonomic space and evolutionary time.  We were interested in the heritability of body size across taxonomic groups (How conserved is body mass within a genus, family and order?), in the overall pattern of body mass across continents (Do the moments and other descriptive statistics remain the same across geographic space?), and over evolutionary time (How quickly did body mass patterns iterate on the patterns seen today?  Were the Pleistocene extinctions size specific on each continent and did these events coincide with the arrival of man?).  These data are also part of a larger project that seeks to integrate body mass patterns across very diverse taxa (NCEAS Working Group on Body size in ecology and paleoecology:  linking pattern and process across space, time and taxonomic scales).  We began with the updated version of Wilson and Reeder’s (1993) taxonomic list of all known Recent mammals of the world (N=4629 species) to which we added status, distribution, and body mass estimates compiled from the primary and secondary literature. Whenever possible, we used an average of male and female body mass, which was in turn averaged over multiple localities to arrive at our species body mass values.  The sources are line referenced in the main dataset, with the actual references appearing in a table within the metadata.  Mammals have individual records for each continent they occur on.  Please note that our dataset is more than an amalgamation of smaller compilations.  Although we relied heavily a dataset for Chiroptera by K.E. Jones (N=905), the CRC handbook of Mammalian Body Mass (N=688), and a data set compiled by for South America by P. Marquet (N=505), these total less than half the records in the current database.  The remainder are derived from more than 150 other sources (see reference table).  Furthermore, we include a comprehensive late Pleistocene species assemblage for Africa, North and South America and Australia (an additional 230 species). “Late Pleistocene” is defined as approximately 11 ka for Africa, North and South America, and at 50 ka for Australia, because these times predate anthropogenic impacts on mammalian fauna. Estimates contained within this dataset represent a generalized species value, averaged across gender and geographic space.  Consequently, these data are not appropriate for asking population-level questions where the integration of body mass with specific environmental conditions is important.  All extant orders of mammals are included, as well as several archaic groups (N=4859 species).  Because some species are found on more than one continent (particularly Chiroptera), there are 5731 entries.  We have body masses for the following:  Artiodactyla (280 records), Bibymalagasia (2 records), Carnivora (393 records), Cetacea (75 records), Chiroptera (1071 records), Dasyuromorphia (67 records), Dermoptera (3 records), Didelphimorphia (68 records), Diprotodontia (127 records), Hydracoidea (5 records), Insectivora (234 records), Lagomorpha (53 records), Litopterna (2 records), Macroscelidea (14 records), Microbiotheria (1 record), Monotremata (7 records), Notoryctemorphia (1 record), Notoungulata (5 records), Paucituberculata (5 records), Peramelemorphia (24 records), Perissodactyla (47 records), Pholidota (8 records), Primates (276 records), Proboscidea (14 records), Rodentia (1425 records), Scandentia (15 records), Sirenia (6 records), Tubulidentata (1 record), and Xenarthra (75 records). 

 

D. Keywords:

Keywords: body mass, extinct mammals, macroecology, taxonomy, late Quaternary

 

Class II. Research origin descriptors

A.     Overall project description

Identity: NCEAS Working Group on Body Size in Ecology and Paleoecology: Linking pattern and process across space, time, and taxonomic scale.

Originator: Felisa A. Smith

Period of Study: 1999-continuing

Objectives: To understand the processes and factors which lead to the macroecological patterns seen across taxonomic and geographic space and through evolutionary time.

Abstract: This research project, initiated in 1999, endeavors to compile body mass, life history, geographic range, and other data for a broad range of taxonomic groups including plants, mammals, birds, reptiles, mollusks for use in investigating macroecological patterns. This work is the outcome of a working group funded by the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis.

Source(s) of funding: National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis

  

B.     Specific subproject description

Site description: Data were obtained from species from a variety of habitats, geologies, hydrologies, etc. Although this is a global database, entries are more comprehensive for oceanic species and those residing on North America, South America, Australia, and Africa.  All mammals of the world, and their continental, status and taxonomic affiliations are included, regardless of whether a body mass estimate was obtained.

Experimental or sampling design: Most data were obtained from published literature sources.  A few body mass values were obtained by examining museum specimens or by personal communication with scientists working on the species in question.

Research Methods:

            Field/Laboratory: Data were collected from published sources written by experienced mammalogists. A species specific body mass was obtained using an algorithm that prioritized the procedure in the following order:  1) A gender-specific estimate obtained by averaging male or female values reported from across different geographic localities, these were then averaged to obtain an overall species value, 2) When no geographic information was provided but gender-specific values were available, these were averaged for an overall species body mass estimate, 3) If both male and female masses were not available, male mass was used preferentially, averaging over geographic localities if such information was available, 4) If only female body mass was available, it was used, averaging over geographic localities as available. When museum records were utilized, averages were obtained for each gender across their range, and these were again averaged to obtain an overall species-specific value.  The source of the value is line referenced in the dataset. In no instance did we use generic means as a proxy for a species average.  Equal weight was given to male and female estimates; we did not use a weighted average to account for possible differences in sample size. For bats, if body mass estimates were not available for both females and males, female mass was used preferentially (i.e. the order of numbers 3 and 4 above were switched).

            Taxonomy: Taxonomy follows Wilson and Reeder (1993), as updated electronically (4 June 2002; www.nmnh.si.edu/msw),

Project Personnel: n/a

 

Class III. Data set Status and Accessibility

A.     Status

Latest Update: April 20, 2003

Latest Archive date: April 20, 2003

Metadata status: April 22, 2003, metadata is current

Data verification: Data has undergone substantial data quality and assurance checking, though this is an on-going process.  Histograms of the body masses of each order were produced, and values at the tails were double-checked for accuracy.  When multiple sources of information were available for a species, or new sources encountered, we used those with higher sample sizes and gender-specific information.

B.     Accessibility

Storage location and medium: Original data file exists on primary author’s personal computer in Microsoft Excel format.

Contact person: Felisa A. Smith, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico 87131, phone: 505.277.6725, fax: 505.277.0304, email: fasmith@unm.edu

Copyright restrictions: None

Proprietary restrictions: None

Costs: None, author believes scientific data should be free for scientific use.

 

Class IV. Data Structural Descriptors:

A.     Data Set File

Identity: MOMv3.3.txt

Size: 5731 records, not including header row.

Format and Storage mode: Ascii text, tab delimited. No compression schemes used.

Header information: Headers are given here as header name followed by more information such as measurement units or other basic descriptor. More information on the variable definitions can be found in Section B, variable information. Continent (SA, NA, EA, insular, oceanic, AUS, AF), Status (extinct, historical, introduction, or extant), Order, Family, Genus, Species, Log Mass (grams), Combined Mass (grams), Reference.

Alphanumeric attributes: Mixed

Special characters/fields: -999 denotes lack of information for that field.

Authentication procedures: The number of records for each continent and for extant and extinct species should match the values reported in Table 1.  The following are sums (excluding missing values) for the overall numeric columns: Log Mass = 10,828.71; Combined Mass (g) = 879,113,624. Sums for log Mass (excluding missing values) by continent are:  AF = 1,839.66; AUS = 934.58; EA = 1560.16; Insular = 2,118.89; NA = 1,655.91; Oceanic = 439.14; SA = 2,280.37.

 

B. Variable definitions

Variable Name

Variable Definition

Units

Storage

Type

Range Numeric

Values

(-999 not incl.)

Missing

Value

codes

Continent

Continent that a species resides on. If species resides on more than one continent, a continent specific body mass is reported when available.  Thus, some mammals have multiple entries. The division between North and South America occurs at the isthmus of Panama.

N/a

Character

N/a

-999

Status

Whether species is currently present in the wild (extant); extinct as of late Pleistocene (extinct), extinct within the last 300 years (historical); or an introduction (introduction); Note these do not necessarily follow CITES or IUCN categories.

N/a

Character

N/a

-999

Order

Taxonomic order of species

N/a

Character

N/a

-999

Family

Taxonomic family of species

N/a

Character

N/a

-999

Genus

Taxonomic genus of species

N/a

Character

N/a

-999

Species

Species epithet

N/a

Character

N/a

-999

Log Mass

Log10 transformation of Combined Mass

Grams

Floating Point

0.26 to 8.28

-999

Combined Mass

Adult body mass averaged across males and females and geographic locations.

Grams

Floating point

1.8 to 190,000,000

-999

Reference

Reference source for body mass information and/or status for that species; the updated electronic version of Wilson and Reeder (1993)  (6 June 2002; www.nmnh.si.edu/msw) serves as the status reference for all extant species.

N/a

Alphanumeric

N/a

-999

 

 

C.     Data set references

The numbers listed in the reference column of the MOMv3.3 dataset refer to the following citations:

 

Reference number

Citation

1

Anderson, E. 1984. Who’s who in the Pleistocene: A mammalian bestiary. In Quaternary extinctions: a prehistoric revolution (P.S. Martin and R.G. Klein, eds.), pp. 40-89. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

2

Klein, R.G. 1984. Mammalian extinctions and stone age people in Africa. In Quaternary extinctions: a prehistoric revolution (P.S. Martin and R.G. Klein, eds.), pp. 553-573. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

3

Flannery, T. and Schouten, P. 2001. A gap in nature: discovering the world’s extinct animals, New York, NY: Atlantic Monthly Press.

4

MacPhee, R.D.E. and Flemming, C. 1999. Requiem æternam: The last five hundred years of mammalian species extinctions. In Extinctions in near time: causes, contexts, and consequences (R.D.E. MacPhee, ed.), pp. 333-372. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.

5

Milewski, A.V. and Diamond, R.E. 2000. Why are very large herbivores absent from Australia? A new theory of micronutrients. Journal of Biogeography, 27: 957-978.

6

Churcher, C.S. 1978. Giraffidae. In Evolution of African Mammals (V.J. Maglio and H.B.S. Cooke, eds.), pp. 509-535. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

7

Churcher, C.S. and Richardson, M.L. 1978. Equidae. In Evolution of African Mammals (V.J. Maglio and H.B.S. Cooke, eds.), pp. 379-422. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

8

Alberdi, M.T., Prado, J.L., and Ortiz-Jaureguizar, E. 1995. Patterns of body size changes in fossil and living Equini (Perissodactyla). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 54: 349-370.

9

Stuart, A.J. 1999. Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions: A European perspective. In Extinctions in near time: causes, contexts, and consequences (R.D. E. MacPhee, ed.), pp. 257-270. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.

10

Stuart, A.J. 1991. Mammalian extinctions in the late Pleistocene of northern Eurasia and North America. Biological Reviews, 66:453-562.

11

Martin, P.S. 1984. Prehistoric overkill: The global model. In Quaternary extinctions: a prehistoric revolution (P.S. Martin and R.G. Klein, eds.), pp. 354-403. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

12

Coppens, Y., Maglio, V.J., Madden, C.T. and Beden, M. 1978. Proboscidea. In Evolution of African Mammals (V.J. Maglio and H.B.S. Cooke, eds.), pp. 336-367. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

13

Murray, P. 1984. Extinctions down under: A bestiary of extinct Australian Late Pleistocene Monotremes and Marsupials.  In Quaternary extinctions: a prehistoric revolution (P.S. Martin and R.G. Klein, eds.), pp. 600-628. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

14

Ward, V.R. 2002.  Prehistoric data files. (November 2002; www.angellis.net).

15

Keast, A., Erk, F.C., and Glass, B. 1972. Evolution, mammals, and southern continents, Albany : State University of New York Press.

16

Flannery, T.F. and Roberts, R.G. 1999. Late Quaternary extinctions in Australasia: A overview. In Extinctions in near time: causes, contexts, and consequences (R.D.E. MacPhee, ed.), pp. 239-256. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.

17

Smith, M.J. 1995. Toolache wallaby: Macropus greyi. In Mammals of Australia, Rev. Ed. (R. Strahan, ed.), pp. 339-340. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

18

Strahan, R. 1995. Eastern hare-wallaby: Lagorchestes leporides. In Mammals of Australia, Rev. Ed. (R. Strahan, ed.), pp. 319-320. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

19

Johnson, K.A. and Burbidge, A.A. 1995. Pig-footed bandicoot: Chaeropus ecaudatus. In Mammals of Australia, Rev. Ed. (R. Strahan, ed.), pp. 170-171. Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

20

Smith, M.J. 1995. Desert rat-kangaroo: Caloprymnus campestris. In Mammals of Australia, Rev. Ed. (R. Strahan, ed.), pp. 296-297. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

21

Kitchener, D.J. 1995. Broad-faced potoroo: Potorous platyops. In Mammals of Australia, Rev. Ed. (R. Strahan, ed.), pp. 300-301. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

22

Wroe, S., Myers, T.J., Wells, R.T., and Gillespie, A. 1999. Estimating the weight of the Pleistocene marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex (Thylacoleonidae: Marsupialia): implications for the ecomorphology of a marsupial super-predator and hypotheses of impoverishment of Australian marsupial carnivore faunas. Australian Journal of Zoology, 47: 489-498.

23

Grayson, D.K. 1993. The desert's past. A natural prehistory of the Great Basin, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

24

Graham, R.W. and Lundelius Jr., E.L. 1984. Coevolutionary disequilibrium and Pleistocene extinctions. In Quaternary extinctions: a prehistoric revolution (P.S. Martin and R.G. Klein, eds.), pp. 223-249. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

25

Kurtén, B. and Anderson, E. 1980. Pleistocene mammals of North America, Columbia, NY : Columbia University Press.

26

Murray, P. 1991. The Pleistocene megafauna of Australia. In Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia (P. Vickers-Rich, J.M. Mongahan, R.F. Baird, and T.H. Rich, eds.), pp. 1070-1164. Melbourne: Pioneer Design Studio.

27

Scott, K. 1990. Postcranial dimensions of ungulates as predictors of body mass. In Body size in mammalian paleobiology: estimation and biological implications. (J. Damuth and B.J. MacFadden, eds.), pp. 301-336. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

28

Alroy, J. 2002. North American fossil mammal systematics database. (January 2003; www.nceas.ucsb.edu/~alroy/nafmsd.html)

29

George C. Page Museum. 2002. La Brea tar pits. (January 2002; www.tarpits.org)

30

FAUNMAP working group. 1994. FAUNMAP Database (October 2001; www.museum.state.il.us)

31

Anyonge, W. 1993. Body mass in large extant and extinct carnivores. Journal of Zoology, London, 231: 339-350.

32

Kurtén, B. 1988. Before the Indians, New York: Columbia University Press.

33

Van Valkenburgh, B. 1991. Iterative evolution of hypercarnivory in canids (Mammalia: Carnivora): evolutionary interactions among sympatric predators. Paleobiology, 17: 340-362.

34

Burke, A. and Cinqmars, J. 1996. Dental characteristics of late Pleistocene Equus lambei from the Bluefish Caves, Yukon Territory, and their comparison with Eurasian horses. Geographie Physique et Quaternaire, 50: 81-93.

35

MacFadden, B.J. 1986. Fossil horses from "Eohippus" (Hyracotherium) to Equus: scaling, Cope's Law, and the evolution of body size. Paleobiology, 12: 355-369.

36

Haynes, G. 1991. Mammoths, mastodons and elephants: biology, behaviour and the fossil record, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

37

Burness, G.P., Diamond, J., and Flannery, T. 2001. Dinosaurs, dragons and dwarfs: the evolution of maximum body size. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98: 14518-14523.

38

Roth, L. 1990. Insular dwarf elephants: A case study in body mass estimation and ecological inference. In Body size in mammalian paleobiology: estimation and biological implications. (J. Damuth and B.J. MacFadden, eds.), pp. 151-180. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

39

Farina, R.A. 1995. Trophic relationships among Lujanian mammals. Evolutionary Theory, 11: 125-134.

40

Farina, R.A. 2002. in litt.

41

Martin, P.S. and Steadman, D.W. 1999. Prehistoric extinctions on islands and continents. In Extinctions in near time: causes, contexts, and consequences (R.D.E. MacPhee, ed.), pp. 17-55. New York : Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.

42

Berta, A. 1988. Quaternary evolution and biogeography of the large South American Canidae (Mammalia, Carnivora), Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

43

Farina, R.A., Vizcaino, S.F., Bargo, M.S.  Body mass estimations in Lujanian (late Pleistocene-early Holocene of South America) mammal megafauna. Unpublished manuscript

44

Prado, J.L. and Alberdi, M.A. 1994. A quantitative review of the horse Equus from South America. Palaeontology, 37: 459-481.

45

MacFadden, B.J. 1997. Pleistocene horses from Tarija, Boliva, and the validity of the genus Onohippidium (Mammalia: Equidae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 17: 199-218.

46

Cartelle, C., Hartwig, W.C. 1996. A new extinct primate among the Pleistocene megafauna of Bahia, Brazil. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93: 6405-6409.

47

MacFadden, B.J. and Shockey, B.J. 1997. Ancient feeding ecology and niche differentiation of Pleistocene mammalian herbivores from Tarija, Bolivia: morphological and isotopic evidence. Paleobiology, 23: 77-100.

48

Cantalamessa G., Di Celma C., Bianucci G., Carnevale G., Coltorti M., Delfino M., Ficcarelli G., Espinosa M.M., Naldini D., Pieruccini P., Ragaini L., Rook L., Rossi M., Tito G., Torre D., Valleri G., and Landini W. 2001. A new vertebrate fossiliferous site from the late Quaternary at San Jose on the north coast of Ecuador: preliminary note. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 14: 331-334.

49

Marshall, L.G. 1994. L'Evolution et le contexte paleoecologique des faunes de mammiferes en amerique du sud pendant le Pleistocene. L'Anthropologie, 98: 55-80.

50

Lessa, E.P. and Farina, R.A. 1996. Reassessment of extinction patterns among the late Pleistocene mammals of South America. Palaeontology, 39: 651-662.

51

De Iuliis, G., Bargo, M.S., and Vizcaino, S.F. 2000. Variation in skull morphology and mastication in the fossil giant armadillos Pampatherium spp. and allied genera (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Pampatheriidae), with comments on their systematics and distribution. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20: 743-754.

52

Farina, R.A. and Vizcaino, S.F. 1997. Allometry of the bones of living and extinct armadillos (Xenarthra, Dasypoda). Z. Saugetierkunde, 62: 65-70.

53

Giacchino, A. And Gurovich, Y. 2002.  Mamiferos gigantescos habitaron la region.   (January 2002; Http://Www.Miramar-Digital.Com/Egatur/Museo/Mamgig.Html).

54

Guerin, C. and Faure, M. 2000. The real nature of Megatherium laurillardi LUND, 1842 (Mammalia, Xenarthra): a dwarf amongst giants. Geobios, 33: 475-488.

55

Bargo, M.S., Vizcaino, S.F., Archuby, F.M., and Blanco, R.E. 2000. Limb bone proportions, strength and digging in some Lujanian (Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene) mylodontid ground sloths (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20: 601-610.

56

Nowak, R.M. 1999. Walker’s Mammals of the World. Volume 1 and 2. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

57

Eisenberg, J.F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. Volume 1. Chicago:  University of Chicago Press.

58

Stuart, A.J.  1991. Mammalian extinctions in the late Pleistocene of northern Eurasia and North America.  Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 66: 453-562.

59

Strahan, R. 1995. Mammals of Australia. Washington, D.C.:  Smithsonian Institution Press.

60

Silva, M., and Downing, J.A. 1995. CRC Handbook of Mammalian Body Masses. Boca Raton:  CRC Press.

61

Marquet, P.A., and Cofre, H.  1999.  Large temporal and spatial scales in the structure of mammalian assemblages in South America: a macroecological approach. Oikos, 85:299-309.

62

Wilson, D.E., and Reeder, D.M.  1993. Mammal species of the world:  a taxonomic and geographic reference, 2nd Edition.  Washington, D.C.:  Smithsonian Institution Press. 

63

Kingdon, J.  1982.  East African mammals:  an atlas of evolution in Africa, Volumes 1-3.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press.

64

Yom Tov, pers. comm.

65

Haltenorth, T. and Diller, H.  1980.  A field guide to the mammals of Africa including Madagascar.  London:  Collins.

66

Brown, J.H., and Nicoletto, P.F.  1991.  Spatial scaling of species assemblages:  body masses of North American land mammals.  American Naturalist, 138:1478-1512.

67

Honacki, J.H., Kinman, K.E., and Koeppl, J.W.  1982.  Mammal species of the world:  a taxonomic and geographic reference. Lawrence:  Allen Press.

68

Ernest, S.K.M.  Life history characteristics of placental nonvolant mammals.   Ecological Archives, in press.

69

Damuth, J.  1987.  Interspecific allometry of population density in mammals and other animals:  the independence of body mass and population energy use.  Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 31:193-246.

70

Kingdon, J. 1997.  The Kingdon field guide to African Mammals. San Diego:  Academic Press.

71

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72

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Best, R.C. and da Silva, V.M.F. 1993. Inia geoffrensis. Mammalian Species, 426:1-8

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Burt, S.L. and Best. T.L. 1994. Tamias rufus. Mammalian Species, 460:1-6.

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Kingswood, S.C. and Blank, D.A. 1996. Gazella subgutturosa. Mammalian Species, 518:1-10.

92

Custodio, C.C., Lepiten, M.V. and Heaney, L.R. 1996. Bubalus mindorensis. Mammalian Species, 520:1-5

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Newcomer, M.W., Jefferson, T.A., and Brownell, R.L. Jr. 1996. Lissodephis peronii. Mammalian Species, 531:1-5

94

Garcia-Perea, R. Ventura, J., Lopez-Fuster, J. and Gisbert, J. 1997. Soxes granarius. Mammalian Species, 554:1-4.

95

Sokolov, V.E. and Lushchekina, A.A. 1997. Procrapa gutterosa. Mammalian Species, 571:1-5

96

Lariviere, S. 1998. Lontra felina. Mammalian Species, 575:1-5

97

Adam, M.D. and Hayes, J.P. 1998. Arborimus pomo. Mammalian Species, 593:1-5.

98

Alvarez-Castaneda, S.T. and Yensen, E. 1999. Neotoma bryanti. Mammalian Species, 619:1-3

99

Norris, C.A. 1999. Phalanger lullulae. Mammalian Species, 620:1-4

100

Mead, J.I. and Nadachowski, A. 1999. Alticola stoliczkanus. Mammalian Species, 624:1-4.

101

Storz, J.F. and Wozencraft. W.C. 1999. Melogale moschata. Mammalian Species, 631:1-4

102

Cortes-Calva, P., Alvarez-Castaneda, S.T., and Yensen, E. 2001. Neotoma anthonyi. Mammalian Species, 663:1-3

103

McCay, T. S. 2001. Blarina carolinensis. Mammalian Species, 673:1-7.

104

Fedosenko, A.K. and Blank, D.A. 2001. Capra sibirica. Mammalian Species, 675:1-13

105

Belcher, R.L. and Lee, T, Jr. 2002. Arctocephalus townsendi. Mammalian Species, 700:1-5.

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Dorst, J. 1969. A field guide to the larger mammals of Africa. Boston:  Houghton Mifflin Company.

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Kingdon, J. 1984. East African mammals. Volume IIA. Insectivores and Bats.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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Van Den Brink, F.H. 1968. A field guide to the mammals of Britain and Europe. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company Boston.

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Stuart, A. J. 1999.  In Extinctions in near time: causes, contexts, and consequences (R.D.E. MacPhee, ed.), pp. 257-270. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.

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Lynch, C.D. 1994. The mammals of Lesotho. Navorsinge: Van Die Nasionale Museum Bloemfontein. (Journal of the National Museum, Bloemfontein) 10:1- 241.

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Krystufek, Boris. 1991. Sesalci Slovenije. Slovenije:  Prirodoslovni muzej Slovenije.

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Prater, S.H. 1971. The book of Indian animals. Bombay Natural History Society. Oxford:  Oxford University Press.

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Kingdon, J. 1982. Ostafrikanische Säugetiere. Frankfurt:  Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft.

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Roberts, T.J. 1977. The mammals of Pakistan. London:  Ernest Benn Limited

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Payne, J., Frances, C.M., and Phillipps, K. 1985. A field guide to the mammals of Borneo. Kuala Lumpur:  The Sabah Society with World Wildlife Fund Malaysia.

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Harrison, J. 1966. An introduction to the mammals of Singapore and Malaya. Malayan Nature Society. Singapore: Tien Wah Press.

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Marshall, P. 1967. Wild mammals of Hong Kong. Oxford:  Oxford University Press.

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Heaney, L.R., Balete, D.S., Rickart, E.A., Utzurrum, R.C.B., and Gonzales, P.C. 1999. Mammalian diversity on Mount Isarog, a threatened center of endemism of souther Luzon Island, Philippines. Fieldiana, 95: 1-62.

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Rickart, E.A., Heaney, L.R., Heideman, P.D., Utzurrum, R.C.B. 1993. The distribution and ecology of mammals on Leyte, Biliran, and Maripipi Islands, Philippines. Fieldiana, 72:1-62.

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Shukor, M.N. 1996. The mammalian fauna on the islands at the northern tip of Sabah, Borneo. Fieldiana, 83:1-51.

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Stanley, W.T., Goodman, S.M., and Hutterer, R. 1996. Notes on the insectivores and elephant shrews of the Chome Forest, South Pare Mountains, Tanzania (Mammalia: Insectivora et Macroscelidea). Zoologische Abhandlungen: Staatliches Museum fur Tierkunde Dresden, 49:131-147.

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Stanley, W.T., Goodman, S.M., and Kihaule, P.M. 1998. Results of two surveys of rodents in the Chome Forest Reserve, South Pare Mountains, Tanzania (Mammalia: Rodentia). Zoologische Abhandlungen: Staatliches Museum fur Tierkunde Dresden, 50:145-160.

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Stanley, W.T. and Hutterer, R. 2000. A new species of Myosorex Gray, 1832 (Mammalia: Soricidae) from the Eastern Arc mountains, Tanzania. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge, 49:19-29.

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Osborn, D.J., and Helmy, I. 1980. The contemporary land mammals of Egypt (including Sinai). Fieldiana, 5:1-579.

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Smithers, R.H.N. 1983. The mammals of the southern African subregion. Pretoria:  University of Pretoria Press.

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Happold, D.C.D. 1987. The mammals of Nigeria. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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Pocock, R.I. 1941. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. Volume II. Carnivora.  London: Taylor and Francis, Ltd.

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Blandford, W.T. 1891. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma.  London: Taylor and Francis, Ltd.

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MacDonald, D.W., Barrett, P. McDonald, D. 1993. Mammals of Britain and Europe.  London: Harper and Collins.

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1990. Grzimek's Encylopedia of Mammals, Volume 3. New York:  Mcgraw Hill.

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1990. Grzimek's Encylopedia of Mammals, Volume 2. New York:  Mcgraw Hill.

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Macdonald, D. 1985. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York:  Facts on File Publications.

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149

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150

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151

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Verts, B.J., and Carraway, L.N. 1998. Land mammals of Oregon. Berkeley:  University of California Press.

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Jones, K.E., Purvis, A., and Gittleman, J.L. 2003. Biological correlates of extinction risk in bats. American Naturalist, 161:601-614.

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Link Olson, 2002. in litt.

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156

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157

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158

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159

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160

 

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161

Wilson, D. E. and Ruff, S.  1999.  The Smithsonian book of North American mammals.  Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

 

 

Class V. Supplemental descriptors

  1. Data acquisition

Data forms: n/a

             Location of completed data forms: n/a

 

B.     Quality assurance/quality control procedures

Data were entered directly from source material into the computer file and values were double checked upon entry. After complete entry of data, data points were randomly selected and checked against original source material until approximately 50% of values had been checked against source material. After the initial data-checking phase was complete, the body mass of species within each mammalian order were plotted and values lying outside the bulk of the distribution were re-examined against the source material. If there was a discrepancy or if there was reason to believe the original data source may have contained an error, an attempt was made to find additional body mass estimates for the taxon.  If values could not be reconciled, no body mass value was reported (i.e., initial value was replaced with –999).

 

C.     Related material: n/a

 

D.    Computer programs and data processing algorithms: n/a

 

E.     Archiving: n/a

 

F.      Publications and results:

To date, these data have been used in several manuscripts currently under review:

 

Ernest, S.K.M., Enquist, B.J., Brown, J.H., Charnov, E.L, Gillooly, J.F., Savage, V.W., White, E.P., Smith, F.A., Hadly, E.A., Haskell, J.P., Lyons, S.K., Maurer, B.A., Niklas, K.J., and Tiffney, B.  Thermodynamic and metabolic effects on the scaling of production and abundance.  Nature, in review.

 

Smith, F.A., Brown, J.H., Haskell, J.P., Lyons, S.K., Alroy, J., Charnov, E.L., Dayan, T., Enquist, B.J., Ernest, S.K.M., Hadly, E.A., Jablonski, D., Jones, K.E., Kaufman, D.M., Marquet, P.A., Maurer, B.A., Niklas, K.J., Porter, W.P., Roy, K., Tiffney, B., and Willig, M.R. Similarity of mammalian body size across the taxonomic hierarchy and across space and time. American Naturalist, revision under review

 

Lyons, S.K., Smith, F.A., and Brown, J.H. Of mice, mastodons, and men: human caused extinctions on four continents. Evolutionary Ecology Research, in revision.

 

G.    History of data set usage

Data request history: The data have been disseminated among the ~20 members of the working group; additionally, we have provided it to a number of other researchers as requested. These projects are still in early stages of completion.

 

Data set update history:

            A major overhaul of the data set, which was formerly known as “MOM-mammals”, occurred during June 2002. At this time, each value was double checked for accuracy and all entries were cross-checked against the Smithsonian website.  A second overhaul occurred in October and November 2002, with the addition of continental affiliations for ~1300 mammals not included earlier, the inclusion of body mass estimates for a number of rare species, and the inclusion of all extinct mammals from the late Pleistocene on North America, South America, Africa and Australia.  In October and November 2002, line by line error checking on the entire dataset was conducted by S.K.M. Ernest, S.K. Lyons and F.A. Smith.  A third major overhaul of the data occurred during February-April 2003 when the orders Chiroptera and Cetacea were added (thus making it a global database of all mammals), and a major literature search effort resulted in the inclusion of body mass values for many Eurasian and insular species. 

 

Review history: n/a

Questions and comments from secondary users: n/a

 

Acknowledgments: We thank all members of the NCEAS Body size working group for their encouragement and advice. This project was supported by the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, a Center funded by NSF (Grant #DEB-0072909), the University of California, and UC Santa Barbara.  J.P. Haskell was supported by a NCEAS undergraduate student internship.  M.L. Schildhauer and M. Jones provided much appreciated database, statistical and computer support.  We especially thank A. Landsman for his efforts in compiling the African database.

 

References

 

Damuth, J. and MacFadden, B.J.  1990.  Body size in mammalian paleobiology : estimation and biological. New York : Cambridge University Press.

 

Flannery, T.F. and Roberts, R.G. 1999. Late Quaternary extinctions in Australasia: A overview. In Extinctions in near time: causes, contexts, and consequences (R.D.E. MacPhee, ed.), pp. 239-256. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.

 

Jones, K.E., Purvis, A., and Gittleman, J.L. 2003. Biological correlates of extinction risk in bats. American Naturalist, 161:601-614.

 

Klein, R.G. 1984. Mammalian extinctions and stone age people in Africa. In Quaternary extinctions: a prehistoric revolution (P.S. Martin and R.G. Klein, eds.), pp. 553-573. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

 

Kurtén, B. 1988. Before the Indians, New York: Columbia University Press.

 

Lessa, E.P. and Farina, R.A. 1996. Reassessment of extinction patterns among the late Pleistocene mammals of South America. Palaeontology, 39: 651-662.

 

Lyons, S.K., Smith, F.A., and Brown, J.H. Of mice, mastodons, and men: human caused extinctions on four continents. Evolutionary Ecology Research, in revision.

 

Martin, P.S. 1984. Prehistoric overkill: The global model. In Quaternary extinctions: a prehistoric revolution (P.S. Martin and R.G. Klein, eds.), pp. 354-403. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

 

Martin, P.S. and Steadman, D.W. 1999. Prehistoric extinctions on islands and continents. In Extinctions in near time: causes, contexts, and consequences (R.D.E. MacPhee, ed.), pp. 17-55. New York : Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.

 

Marquet, P.A. and Cofre, H.  1999.  Large temporal and spatial scales in the structure of mammalian assemblages in South America: a macroecological approach. Oikos, 85:299-309.

 

Silva, M. and Downing, J.A. 1995. CRC Handbook of Mammalian Body Masses. Boca Raton:  CRC Press.

 

Smith, F.A., Brown, J.H., Haskell, J.P., Lyons, S.K., Alroy, J., Charnov, E.L., Dayan, T., Enquist, B.J., Ernest, S.K.M., Hadly, E.A., Jablonski, D., Jones, K.E., Kaufman, D.M., Marquet, P.A., Maurer, B.A., Niklas, K.J., Porter, W.P., Roy, K., Tiffney, B., and Willig, M.R. Similarity of mammalian body size across the taxonomic hierarchy and across space and time. American Naturalist, revision under review

 

Stuart, A.J. 1999. Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions: A European perspective. In Extinctions in near time: causes, contexts, and consequences (R.D.E. MacPhee, ed.), pp. 257-270. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.

 

Wilson, D.E., and Reeder, D.M.  1993. Mammal species of the world:  a taxonomic and geographic reference, 2nd Edition.  Washington, D.C.:  Smithsonian Institution Press.

 


Table 1.  Continental affiliations of mammals included in dataset.

 

Overall

Extant*

Extinct

Continent

Total spp

Total  with mass

Total

missing

mass

Total

spp

Total

with

mass

Total

missing

mass

Total

spp

Total

with

mass

Total

missing

mass

Africa

1034

736

298

1017

719

298

17

17

0

Australia

346

338

8

278

270

8

68

67

1

Eurasia

1033

612

421

1027

608

419

6**

4

2

Insular***

1484

954

530

1405

916

489

79**

38

41

North America

779

715

64

700

636

64

79

79

0

Oceanic

78

75

3

78

75

3

0**

0

0

South America

977

930

47

900

854

46

77

76

1

TOTAL

5731

4361

1372

5405

4078

1327

326

281

45

*Introductions are not excluded from the extant total.

**Only a small number of extinct species from the terminal Pleistocene are included; no effort was made to develop a comprehensive late Pleistocene faunal list for Eurasia, insular or oceanic species. However, the species list is comprehensive for Africa, Australia, North and South America.

***A small number of species that primarily occur on North or South America, but are also found on adjacent islands, may be missing records in the insular category.



[1] Corresponding author:  Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM   87131, fasmith@unm.edu