Coccidia (Eimeriidae) of Primates and Scandentia
(monkeys, apes, humans, tree shrews)

Compiled by
Donald W. Duszynski1, Steve J. Upton2, and Lee Couch1

1Department of Biology, University of New Mexico
2Division of Biology, Kansas State University

Supported by NSF-PEET DEB 9521687

COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Copyright 1998. Material at this site is intellectual property and is protected by the International Berne Convention Treaty and by copyright laws of the United States of America. Permission hereby is granted by the authors for individuals to make copies of any portion of this work for personal or classroom use, without fee, providing that the information is not distributed for profit or for commerical advantage. Any use of this information for scientific purposes, such as contained in taxonomic review articles, books, book chapters, or monographs, MUST be accompanied by an appropriate credit citing the above authors by name and acknowledging NSF grant PEET DEB 9521687. Any use of this information for profit or other commercial gain must be negotiated with the authors.

Updated: 4 February 1999
Comments: (Duszynski)
or (Upton)


FAMILY: Tupaiidae (Tree-shrews)

Eimeria ptilocerci Mullin, Colley and Stevens, 1972

Host: Ptilocercus lowii (pen-tailed tree-shrew)
References: Mullin et al. (1972)

Eimeria ferruginea Colley, 1970

Host: Tupaia ferruginea (common tree-shrew)
References: Colley (1970); Mullin and Colley (1972); Mullin et al. (1972)

Eimeria modesta Van Peenan, Ryan and McIntyre, 1967

Host: Tupaia glis modesta (common tree-shrew)
References: Colley (1970); Van Peenan et al. (1967)

Eimeria tupaiae Mullin, Colley and Stevens, 1972

Host: Tupaia glis (common tree-shrew)
References: Mullin and Colley (1972); Mullin et al. (1972)


FAMILY: Galagonidae (Lesser bush baby)

Eimeria galago Poelma, 1966

Host: Galago senegalensis (northern lesser bush baby)
References: Poelma (1966)

Eimeria lemuris Poelma, 1966

Host: Galago senegaleneis (northern lesser bush baby)
References: Poelma (1966)

Eimeria otolicni Poelma, 1966

Host: Galago senegalensis (northern lesser bush baby)
References: Poelma (1966)

Isospora arctopitheci Rodhain, 1933

Host: Galago senegalensis (northern lesser bush baby)
References: Poelma (1966)

FAMILY: Loridae (Loris)

Eimeria coucangi Patnaik and Acharjyo, 1970

Host: Nycticebus coucang (slow loris)
References: Patnaik and Acharjyo (1970)

Eimeria nycticebi Patnaik and Acharjyo, 1970

Host: Nycticebus coucang (slow loris)
References: Patnaik and Acharjyo (1970)

Eimeria pachylepyron Colley and Mullin, 1972

Host: Nycticebus coucang (slow loris)
References: Colley and Mullin (1972)

FAMILY: Tarsiidae (Tarsier)

Eimeria tarsii Duszynski, Wilson, Upton and Levine, 1999

Host: Tarsius syrichta (Phillipine tarsier)
References: Duszynski et al. (1999); Osman hill (1952)

FAMILY: Callithrichidae (Marmosets)

Isospora callimico Hsu and Melby, 1974

Host:Callimico goeldii (Goeldi's marmoset)
References: Hsu and Melby (1974)

Isospora endocallimici Duszynski and File, 1974

Host: Callimico goeldii (Goeldi's marmoset
References: Duszynski and File (1974); Speer et al. (1976)

Isospora arctopitheci Rodhain, 1933

Synonym: Isospora scorzaiArcay-de-Peraza, 1967
Host: Callithrix penicillata (short-tusked marmoset)
References: Arcay-de-Peraza (1967); Duszynski and Speer (1976); Hendricks (1974, 1977); Hendricks and Walton (1974); Olcott et al. (1982); Poelma (1966); Rodhain (1933)
NOTE: This species was experimentally transmitted to Alouatta pigra, Aotus trivirgatus, Ateles fusciceps, Cacajao calvus, Cebus capucinus and Saimiri sciureus.

FAMILY: Cebidae

Isospora cebi Marinkelle, 1969

Host:Cebus albifrons (white-fronted capuchin)
References: Lindsay et al. (1997); Marinkelle (1969)

Isospora saimirae Lainson and Shaw, 1989

Host: Saimiri sciureus sciureus (squirrel monkey)
References: Lainson and Shaw (1989)

FAMILY: Cercopithecidae (Macaques)

Cyclospora cercopitheci Ebe rhard, da Silva, Lilley, and Pieniazek, 1999

Synonym: Cyclospora colobi Eberhard, da Silva, Lilley, and Pieniazek, 1999
Synonym: Cyclospora papionis Eberhard, da Silva, Lilley, and Pieniazek, 1999
Hosts: Cercopithecus aethiops (African green monkey or Vervet monkey - type host), Colobus guereza (Colobus monkey), Papio anubis (Olive baboon)
References: Eberhard et al. 1999, 2000; Lopez et al. 1999; Smith et al. 1996, 1997
Remarks: Eberhard et al. (1999) originally established three new species of Cyclospora from non-human primates. Cyclospora cercopitheci was described from African green monkeys, Cyclospora colobi was named from the Colobus monkey, and Cyclospora papionis was found in the Olive baboon. Morphologically, the mean measurements between oocysts were less than 1.0 micrometer in diameter and few genetic differences were noted. Thus, these may well represent the same species. In addition, few differences were noted between oocysts found in non-human primates and Cyclospora cayetanensis from humans. However, later experimental transmission studies by Eberhard et al. (2000) suggest that human isolates may not be capable of infecting non-human primates. Even thought the authors were unable to use human positive controls in their experiments, enough isolates were tested to tentatively believe that the coccidian in non-human primates may be a species separate from Cyclospora cayetanensis.

Isospora sp. Bhatia et al., 1972)

Host: Macaca radiata (bonnet macaque)
References: Bhatia et al. (1972)
NOTE: This is probably a pseudoparasite from a bird.

FAMILY: Hominidae (Humans)

Cyclospora cayetanensis Ortega, Gilman and Sterling, 1994

Host: Homo sapiens (humans)
References: Ashford (1979); Ashford et al. (1993); McClelland (1997); Ortega et al. (1992, 1993, 1994, 1997, 1998); Smith et al. (1996); Soave (1996)

Cyclospora sp. of Smith, Paton, Girdwood, and Mtambo, 1996

Host: Pan troglodytes (Common chimpanzee)
References: Lopez et al. 1999; Smith et al. 1996
Remarks: It is not yet known whether this Cyclospora sp. represents Cyclospora cayetanensis Ortega, Gilman and Sterling, 1994, Cyclospora cercopitheci Eberhard, da Silva, Lilley, and Pieniazek, 1999, or an undescribed species

Isospora belli Wenyon, 1923

Host: Homo sapiens (humans)
References: Briceno (1952); Campos et al. (1969); Dobell (1926); DeHovitz et al. (1986); Elsdon-Dew and Freedman (1953); Faust et al. (1961); Foner (1939); Herrlich and Liebmann (1943, 1944); Jarpa and Zuolaga (1961); Jeffery (1956a, b, 1958); Kuntz et al. (1958); Levine (1973); Lindsay et al. (1997); Long and Christie (1995); Michiels et al. (1994); Pellerdy (1974); Restrepo et al. (1987); Robin and Fondimare (1960); Wenyon (1923, 1926); Zamen (1967)

Isospora natalensis Elsdon-Dew, 1953

Host: Homo sapiens (humans)
References: Dodds and Elsdon-Dew (1955); Elsdon-Dew (1953); Lindsay et al. (1997)


Eimeria oxyspora Dobell, 1919

Host: Homo sapiens (humans)
Valid name: Eimeria sardinae (Thelohan, 1890) Reichenow, 1921
Note: This is a pseudoparasite of fish origin.
References: Dobell (1919); Pellerdy (1974)

Eimeria snijdersi Dobel, 1920

Host: Homo sapiens (humans)
Valid name:Eimeria sardinae (Thelohan, 1890) Reichenow, 1921
Note: This is a pseudoparasite of fish origin.
References: Dobell (1920); Pellerdy, (1974)

Eimeria wenyoni Dobell, 1919

Host: Homo sapiens (humans)
Valid name: Eimeria clupearum
Note: This is a pseudoparasite of fish origin.
References: Dobell (1919); Pellerdy (1974)

Isospora chilensis Jarpa and Zuolaga, 1963

Host: Homo sapiens (humans)
Valid name: Sarcocystis sp.
References: Jarpa and Zuolaga (1963); Lindsay and Todd (1993); Lindsay et al. (1997)

Isospora hominis (Railliet and Lucet, 1891) Wenyon, 1923

Host: Homo sapiens (humans)
Valid name: Sarcocystis hominis (pro parte) and Sarcocystis suihominis (pro parte)
References: Lindsay and Todd (1993); Lindsay et al. (1997: Wenyon (1923)

Isospora papionis McConnell, de Vos, Basson, and deVos, 1971

Host: Papio ursinus (Chacma baboon)
Valid name: Sarcocystis sp.
References: McConnell et al. (1971, 1972); Lindsay et al. (1997)

Isospora scorzai Arcay-de-Peraza, 1967

Host: Cacajo calvus (Uakari monkey)
Valid name: Isospora arctopitheci
References: Arcay-de-Peraza (1967); Hendricks (1974)

Isospora sp. Rijpstra, 1967

Host: Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee)
Valid name: Sarcocystis sp.
References: Lindsay and Todd (1993); Lindsay et al. (1997); Rijpstra (1967)


Eimeria butkai Causey, 1926

Host: Homo sapiens (humans)
References: Causey (1926)

Eimeria voinjamensis Bray, 1964

Host: Galagoides demidoff (Demidoff's bush baby)
References: Bray (1964)

Eimeria sp. Mullin, Colley and Welch, 1975

Host: Nycticebus coucang (slow loris)
References: Mullin et al. (1975)

Isospora sp. Stuart, Greenspan, Glander and Clarke, 1990

Host: Alouatta palliata palliata (mantled howling monkey)
References: Stuart et al. (1990)


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