Classification of teleost fish
Coccidia (Eimeriidae) from miscellaneous orders

Compiled by
Donald W. Duszynski and Lee Couch
Department of Biology, University of New Mexico
and
Steve J. Upton
Division of Biology, Kansas State University

Supported by NSF-PEET DEB 9521687

COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Copyright 2000. Material at this site is intellectual property and is protected by the International Berne Convention Treaty and by copyright laws of the United States of America. Permission hereby is granted by the authors for individuals to make copies of any portion of this work for personal or classroom use, without fee, providing that the information is not distributed for profit or for commerical advantage. Any use of this information for scientific purposes, such as contained in taxonomic review articles, books, book chapters, or monographs, MUST be accompanied by an appropriate credit citing the above authors by name and acknowledging NSF grant PEET DEB 9521687. Any use of this information for profit or other commercial gain must be negotiated with the authors.


Updated: 15 July 2000
Comments: eimeria@unm.edu or coccidia@ksu.edu


NOTE: There exist a number of taxonomic schemes to classifiy both fish and fish coccidia. We realize that whatever taxonomic schemes we utilize, we won't be able to please everyone. The classification scheme for the hosts is based on a recent massive compilation funded by NSF and published by the California Academy of Sciences: Eschmeyer, W.N., 1998, Catalog of Fishes, Volumes 1-3, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 2905 pp. The various orders have been arranged in alphabetical order simply for ease of use and, thus, in no way reflect any trend from primitive to more advanced taxa. An excellent source of fish taxonomy and common names can also be found at Fishbase. The classification scheme for the coccidia is traditional and very conservative, and at this point we feel that splitting the genus Eimeria into a number of other genera based on site of infection or sporocyst structure is premature. There are simply too many grey areas and exceptions. However, we have made no attempt to use this web database to assign new trivial names to any of the species that we feel should be re-categorized.

We have included the genus Calyptospora here even though many consider this coccidian to belong in the separate family Calyptosporidae. These coccidia were originally defined as having oocysts with 4 sporocysts, each sporocyst with 2 sporozoites, and possess an obligatory heteroxenous life-cycle (Overstreet et al. 1984). In most cases, they live in non-intestinal tissues of the fish host such as the liver, and frequently have sporocysts with elaborate ornamentation. However, until the phylogenetic between these coccidia and the traditional eimerians are worked out at the molecular level, we hesitate to place the Calyptospora within a separate family. The family Aggregatidae Labbe, 1899 could also easily accomodate the genus since coccidia within this family are defined as having obligate heteroxenous life-cycles.

Although we continually collect all reports we run across on the coccidia of fish, the number of publications is vast and there are certainly many reports that we have missed. If you run across reports that are not cited in the database, please e-mail us with the reference so it can be added.


CLASS: Holocephali

Order: Chimaeriformes (chimaeras) - no coccidia reported

CLASS: Sarcopterygii

Order: Ceratodontiformes (Australian lungfish) - no coccidia reported
Order: Coelacanthiformes (coelacanths) - no coccidia reported
Order: Lepidosireniformes (African and South American lungfish) - no coccidia reported

CLASS: Actinopterygii (=Osteichthyes)

Order: Acipenseriformes (sturgeon) - coccidia reported

  1. Eimeria sp. of Molnar, 1986
    1. Synonym: Goussia acipenseris Molnar, 1986
    2. Host: Acipenser ruthenus (Sterlet)
    3. Reference: Molnar 1986

  2. Eimeria sp. 3 of Kulakovskaya, 1960
    1. Host: Acipenser nudiventris (?) (Fringebarbel sturgeon)
    2. Reference: Kulakovskaya 1960
    3. Remarks: The exact host species is not certain

  3. Eimeria sp. of Molnar, 1986
    1. Synonym: Eimeria vargai Molnar, 1986
    2. Host: Acipenser ruthenus (Sterlet)
    3. Reference: Molnar 1986

Order: Albuliformes (bonefishes) - no coccidia reported
Order: Amiiformes (bowfins) - no coccidia reported
Order: Anguilliformes (eels) - coccidia reported - separate file
Order: Ateleopodiformes (jellynose fishes) - no coccidia reported
Order: Atheriniformes (silversides) - coccidia reported

  1. Calyptospora funduli (Dusynzki, Solangi, and Overstreet, 1979) Overstreet, Hawkins, and Fournie, 1984
    1. Synonym: Eimeria funduli Duszynski, Solangi, and Overstreet, 1979
    2. Synonym: Eimeria sp. of Overstreet, 1978
    3. Hosts: Fundulus grandis (Gulf killifish), Fundulus heteroclitus (Mummichog), Fundulus jenkinsi (Saltmarsh topminnow), Fundulus pulvereus (Bayou killifish), Fundulus similis (Longnose killifish). All Cyprinodontiformes. Hosts in other orders include Menidia beryllina (Inland silverside - Atheriniformes) and Opsanus beta (Gulf toadfish - Batrachoidiformes)
    4. Reference: Fournie and Overstreet 1993
    5. Remarks: The infection in Menidia beryllina was induced experimentally and some abnormal coccidian development was noted

  2. Eimeria atherinae Daoudi, Radujkovic, Marques, and Bouix, 1987
    1. Host: Atherina boyeri (Big-scale sand smelt)
    2. References: Daoudi 1987; Daoudi et al. 1987; Radujkovic and Raibaut 1989b

  3. Eimeria sp. of Kent, Mosier, and Fournie, 1989
    1. Host: Atherinomorus capricornensis (Capricorn silverside)
    2. Reference: Kent et al. 1989

Order: Aulopiformes (greeneyes, lizardfishes, telescope fishes) - coccidia reported

  1. Eimeria harpodoni Setna and Bana, 1935
    1. Synonym: Eimeria sp. of Setna, 1933
    2. Host: Harpodon nehereus (Bombay duck)
    3. References: Setna 1933; Setna and Bana 1935

Order: Batrachoidiformes (toadfish) - coccidia reported

  1. Calyptospora funduli (Dusynzki, Solangi, and Overstreet, 1979) Overstreet, Hawkins, and Fournie, 1984
    1. Synonym: Eimeria funduli Duszynski, Solangi, and Overstreet, 1979
    2. Synonym: Eimeria sp. of Overstreet, 1978
    3. Hosts: Fundulus grandis (Gulf killifish), Fundulus heteroclitus (Mummichog), Fundulus jenkinsi (Saltmarsh topminnow), Fundulus pulvereus (Bayou killifish), Fundulus similis (Longnose killifish). All Cyprinodontiformes. Hosts in other orders include Menidia beryllina (Inland silverside - Atheriniformes) and Opsanus beta (Gulf toadfish - Batrachoidiformes)
    4. Reference: Oliveira et al. 1993
    5. Remarks: A single fish out of 54 surveyed was found to harbor an infection

  2. Eimeria sp. of Setna and Bana, 1935
    1. Host: Allenbatrachus grunniens (sy. Batrachus grunniens) (Frogfish)
    2. Reference: Setna and Bana 1935

Order: Beloniformes (flying fishes, halfbeaks, needlefish, sauries) - coccidia reported

  1. Eimeria sp. of Schouten, Suriel-Smeets, and Kibbelaar, 1968
    1. Host: Hirundichthys affinis (Fourwing flyingfish)
    2. Reference: Shouten et al. 1968

  2. Eimeria sp. of Diouf and Toguebaye, 1993
    1. Synonym: Goussia exoceti Diouf and Toguebaye, 1993
    2. Host: Hirundichthys affinis (Fourwing flyingfish)
    3. Reference: Diouf and Toguebaye 1993

  3. Eimeria sp. 1 of Dogiel, 1948
    1. Synonym: Eimeria auxidus Dogiel, 1948 pro parte
    2. Host: Cololabis saira (Pacific saury)
    3. Reference: Dogiel 1948

  4. Eimeria sp. of Matsubayashi, 1935
    1. Host: Cololabis saira (Pacific saury)
    2. Reference: Matsubayashi 1935

Order: Beryciformes (berycids, lanterneyes, squirrelfishes) - coccidia reported

  1. Eimeria adioryxi Diouf and Toguebaye, 1994
    1. Host: Sargocentron hastatus (syn. Adioryx hastatus) (Red squirrelfish)
    2. Reference: Diouf and Toguebaye 1994

Order: Cetomimiformes (hairyfishes, whalefishes) - no coccidia reported
Order: Characiformes (characins, freshwater hatchetfish, piranha) - coccidia reported

  1. Calyptospora serrasalmi Cheung, Nigrelli, and Ruggieri, 1986
    1. Host: Serrasalmus rhombeus (syn. Serrasalmus niger) (Redeye piranha)
    2. References: Cheung et al. 1983, 1986

Order: Clupeiformes (clupeids) - coccidia reported - separate file
Order: Cypriniformes (cyprinids) - coccidia reported - separate file
Order: Cyprinodontiformes (killifish, rivulines, topminnows) - coccidia reported - separate file
Order: Elopiformes (ladyfish, tarpons, tenpounders) - no coccidia reported
Order: Esociformes (pike) - coccidia reported - separate file separate file
Order: Gadiformes (cod, hake, rattails) - coccidia reported - separate file
Order: Gasterosteiformes (sticklebacks) - coccidia reported - separate file
Order: Gobiesociformes (clingfish) - coccidia reported

  1. Eimeria sp. 2 of Thelohan, 1893
    1. non Coccidium variabilis Thelohan, 1893
    2. non Eimeria variabilis (Thelohan, 1893) Reichenow, 1921
    3. Host: Lepadogaster lepadogaster (syn. Lepadogaster gouani) (Shore clingfish)
    4. Reference: Thelohan 1893

Order: Gonorynchiformes (milkfishes) - no coccidia reported
Order: Gymnotiformes (knifefishes) - no coccidia reported
Order: Lampriformes (crestfish, oarfish, opahs, ribbonfish) - no coccidia reported
Order: Lepisosteiformes (gar) - no coccidia reported
Order: Lophiiformes (anglerfish) - no coccidia reported
Order: Myctophiformes (lanternfishes) - no coccidia reported
Order: Notacanthiformes (halosaurs, spiny eels) - no coccidia reported
Order: Ophidiiformes (aphyonids, brotulas, cuskeels, pearlfishes) - no coccidia reported
Order: Osmeriformes (smelt, argentines, icefishes) - coccidia reported

  1. Eimeria sp. of Daoudi, Blanc, Marques, and Bouix, 1984
    1. Host: Argentina sphyraena (Argentine)
    2. Reference: Daoudi et al. 1984

  2. Eimeria oseri Molnar and Fernado, 1974
    1. Host: Osmerus mordax (Arctic rainbow smelt)
    2. References: Margolis and Arthur 1979; Molnar and Fernando, 1974

Order: Osteoglossiformes (elephantfishes, knifefishes, mooneyes) - coccidia reported

  1. Eimeria notopteri Chakravarty and Kar, 1944
    1. Host: Notopterus notopterus (Bronze featherback)
    2. Reference: Chakravarty and Kar 1944

Order: Perciformes (bass, blennies, cichlids, gobies, mullet, snappers, sunfish, tuna) - coccidia reported - separate file
Order: Percopsiformes (cavefishes, pirate perches, trout perches) - no coccidia reported
Order: Pleuronectiformes (flounders, sole, tonguefish) - coccidia reported

  1. Eimeria (?) sp. of Ferguson and Roberts, 1975
    1. Host: Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot - Bothidae)
    2. References: Ferguson and Roberts 1975; McVicar and MacKenzie 1977

  2. Eimeria sp. of Morrison, McClelland, Cornick, and Marcogliese, 1986
    1. Host: Hippoglossoides platessoides (American plaice - Pleuronectidae)
    2. References: Morrison and Marryatt 1990; Morrison et al. 1986

  3. Eimeria scyacii Diouf and Toguebaye, 1994
    1. Host: Syacium micrurum (Channel flounder - Paralichthyidae)
    2. Reference: Diouf and Toguebaye 1994

Order: Polymixiiformes (beardfishes) - no coccidia reported
Order: Polypteriformes (bichirs) - no coccidia reported
Order: Saccopharyngiformes (bobtail eels, gulpers, swallowers) - no coccidia reported
Order: Salmoniformes (salmonids) - coccidia reported - separate file
Order: Scorpaeniformes (greenlings, lionfish, poachers, rockfish, sculpins, stonefish) - coccidia reported - separate file
Order: Siluriformes (catfish) - coccidia reported - separate file
Order: Stephanoberyciformes (bigscales, pricklefishes) - no coccidia reported
Order: Stomiiformes (bristlemouths, dragonfishes, lightfishes) - coccidia reported

  1. Eimeria sp. 2 of Reimer, 1976
    1. Host: Maurolicus muelleri (Pearlside)
    2. Reference: Reimer 1976

Order: Synbranchiformes (spiny eels, swamp eels) - no coccidia reported
Order: Syngnathiformes (coronetfish, pipefish, sea horses, trumpetfish) - coccidia reported

  1. Eimeria pleurostici Yakimov and Gousseff, 1936
    1. Host: Syngnathus abaster (syn. Syngnathus nigrolineatus) (Great pipefish)
    2. References: Dogiel 1948; Markevich 1951; Schulman and Shtein 1962; Yakimov and Gousseff 1936

Order: Tetraodontiformes (molas, puffers, porcupinefish, triggerfish) - coccidia reported

  1. Eimeria pleurostici Molnar and Rohde, 1988
    1. Host: Sphaeroides pleurosticus (Blaasop beauty)
    2. References: Molnar and Rohde 1988a

  2. Eimeria rohdei Lom and Dykova 1995
    1. Host: Monacanthus chinensis (Fan-bellied leatherjacket)
    2. References: Lom and Dykova 1995

Order: Zeiformes (boarfishes, dories, oreos) - no coccidia reported



References

Chakravarty, M. and Kar, A.B. 1944. A new coccidian from the intestine of the fish Notopterus notopterus (Pallas). Current Science 13: 51.

Cheung, P.J., Nigrelli, R.F., and Ruggieri, G.D. 1983. Coccidian parasite from the liver of the black piranha, Serrasalmus niger Schomburgk. Eastern Fish Health Workshop, June 21-23, 1983. National Fish Health Research Laboratory, Kearneysville, West Virginia. p. 3.

Cheung, P.J., Nigrelli, R.F., and Ruggieri, G.D. 1986. Calyptospora serrasalmi sp. nov. (Coccidia: Calyptosporidae) from liver of the black piranha, Serrasalmus niger Schomburgk. Journal of Aquariculture and Aquatic Sciences 4: 54-57.

Daoudi, F. 1987. Coccidien et coccidioses des poissons mediterraneens: Systematique, ultrastructure et Biologie. PhD dissertation, University of Sciences and Techniques at Languedoc, Montpellier, France. 302 pp.

Daoudi, F., Blanc, E., Marques, A., and Bouix, G. 1984. Etude preliminaire de coccidioses de poissons marins des cotes et etangs languedociens. Journal of Protozoology 31 (Supplement 247): 68A.

Daoudi, F., Radujkovic, B., Marques, A., and Bouix, G. 1987. Nouvelles especes de coccidies (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) des genres Eimeria Schneider, 1875, et Epieimeria Dykova et Lom, 1981, parasites de poissons marins de la baie de Kotor (Yougoslavie). Bulletin du Museum National D'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, Series 4, Section A, 9: 321-332.

Diouf, J.N. and Toguebaye, B.S. 1993. Studies of coccidian parasites of fish from the coast of Senegal (West Africa): new species of the genus Goussia (Apicomplexa, Eucoccidiida, Calyptosporidae). Zoologica Scripta 22: 117-126.

Diouf, J.N. and Toguebaye, B.S. 1994. Study of some marine fish coccidia of the genus Eimeria SChneider, 1815 (Apicomplexa, Coccidia) from Senegal coasts. Acta Protozoologica 33: 239-250.

Dogiel, V.A. 1948. Parasitic protozoa of fishes from Peter the Great Bay. Izvestiya Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituto Ozernogo i Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozyaistva 27: 17-66.

Duszynski, D.W., Solangi, M.A., and Overstreet, R.M. 1979. A new and unusual eimerian (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) from the liver of the gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 15: 543- 552.

Ferguson, H.W. and Roberts, R.J. 1975. Myeloid leucosis associated with sporozoan infection in cultured turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). Journal of Comparative Pathology 85: 317-326.

Fournie, J.W. and Overstreet, R.M. 1993. Host specificity of Calyptospora fundulii (Apicomplexa: Calyptosporidae) in Atheriniform fish. Journal of Parasitology 79: 720-727.

Kent, M.L., Moser, M., and Fournie, J.W. 1989. Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eucoccidorida) in hardy head fish, Atherinomorus capricornensis (Woodland). Journal of Fish Diseases 12: 179-183.

Kulakovskaya, O.P. 1960. Parasites in fishe of the upper reaches of the Prut river. Akademiia Nauk Ukrainia RSR, Naukovo- Pryrodoznavchyi Muzei, Lvov Naukovi Zapiski, Kiev 8: 70-82.

Lom, J. and Dykova, I. 1995. Studies on protozoan parasites of Australian fishes. Notes on coccidian parasites with description of three new species. Systematic Parasitology 31: 147-156.

Margolis, L. and Arthur, J.R. 1979. Synopsis of the parasites of fishes of Canada. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 199, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, 270 pp.

Markevich, A.P. 1951. Parasitic fauna of freshwater fish of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Akademiya Nauk Ukrainskoi SSR, Institut Zoologii, Kiev, 375 pp. Translated from Russian by N. Rafael, Israel Program for Scientific Translations. Office of Technical Series, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 388 pp.

Matsubayashi, H. 1935. Eimeria parasitic in marine fishes. Keio-Igaku 15: 1281-1300.

McVicar, A.H. and MacKenzie, K. 1977. Effects of different systems of monoculture on marine fish parasites. In, Origins of Pest, Parasite, Disease and Weed Problems, Cherrett, J.M. and Sagor, G.R., editors. Proceedings of the 18th Symposium of the British Ecological Scoiety, Bangor, April 12-14, 1976. Blackwell Scientific Pulishers, Oxford, London, Edinburgh, and Melbourne. p. 170.

Molnar, K. 1986. Occurrence of two new Goussia species in the intestine of the sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus). Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 34: 169-174.

Molnar, K. and Fernando, C.H. 1974. Some new Eimeria (Protozoa, Coccidia) from freshwater fishes in Ontario, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 52: 413-419.

Molnar, K. and Rohde, K. 1988a. Seven new coccidian species from marine fishes in Australia. Systematic Parasitology 11: 19-29.

Morrison, C.M. and Marryatt, V.M. 1990. Coccidia in marine fish off Nova Scotia. In, Pathology in Marine Science. Perkins, F.O. and Cheng, T.C., editors Academic Press, San Diego. pp. 165-174.

Morrison, C.M., McClelland, G., Cornick, J., and Marcogliense, D. 1986. Parasites and diseases of some marine finfish off Nova Scotia. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 1424: 36 pp.

Oliveira, M.F.T., Hawkins, W.E., Overstreet, R.M., and Fournie, J.W. 1993. Calyptospora funduli (Apicomplexa, Calyptosporidae) in the liver of the gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta. Journal of the Helminthological Society of Washington 60: 273-277.

Overstreet, R.M. 1978. Marine Maladies? Worms, Germs, and other Symbionts from the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium, Blossman Printing, Inc., Ocean Springs, Mississippi. 140. pp.

Overstreet, R.M., Hawkins, W.E., and Fournie, J.W. 1984. The coccidian genus Calyptospora n. g. and family Calyptosporidae n. fam. (Apicomplexa), with members infecting primarily fishes. Journal of Protozoology 31: 332-339.

Radujkovic, M. and A. Raibut. 1989a. Faune des parasites de poissons marins des cotes du Montenegro (Adriatique Sud). Acta Adriatica 30: 5-12.

Radujkovic, M. and A. Raibut. 1989b. Parasites des poissons marins du Montenegro: Liste des especes de poissons avec leurs parasites. Acta Adriatica 30: 307-319.

Reimer, L.W. 1976. Protozoan von marinen fischen des kanals und von Nordwestafrika. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Padagogischen Hochschule 'Liselotte Hermann' Gustrow 14: 143-147.

Schulman, S.S. and Shtein, G.A. 1962. A guide to the parasites of freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. In, Key to Parasites of Freshwater fish of the U.S.S.R., Pavlovskii, E.N., Bykhovskii, B.E., Bychovskaya-Pavlovskaya, I.E., Gusev, A.V., Dubinina, M.N., Izyumova, M.A., Smirnova, T.S., Sokolovskaya, I.L., Shtein, G.A., Schulman, S.S., Ephstein, V.M., Nagibina, L.F., Raikova, E.V., and Strelkov, Yu. A., editors. Izdatel'stvo Academii Nauk SSR, Moscow- Leningrad. Translated from Russian by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1964. pp. 33-51.

Schouten, H., Suriel-Smeets, R.M., and Kibbelaar, M.A. 1968. The simultaneous occurrence of ova resembling Dicrocoelium dendriticum or Capillaria hepatica in the stools of inhabitants of curacao. Tropical and Geographic Medicine 20: 271-275.

Setna, S.B. 1933. Fish coccidia. Current Science 2: 97.

Setna, S.B. and Bana, R.H. 1935. IX.-Eimeria harpodoni n. sp., a coccidium from Harpodon nehereus (Ham. and Buch.). Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society 55: 256-260.

Thelohan, P. 1893. Nouvelles recherches sur les coccidies. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences (Paris) 117: 247-249.

Yakimov, V.L. and Gousseff, W.F. 1936. XVII.-Eimeria syngnathi n. sp., a new coccidium from the great pipe fish (Syngnathus nigrolineatus). Journal of Microscopy 56: 376.